The Quran informs the reader that the Prophet was mocked, ridiculed (37:12) like the messengers before him (13:32; 15:11; 21:41). He was called an inventor, forger, a liar (16:101; 25:4), a man who was bewitched (17:47; 25:8), that he was a possessed poet (37:36). Insults were even hurled at the Quran, in that it was called 'muddled dreams' (21:5), 'foreign, outlandish' (16:103), an invention, a forgery (38:7) and tales of the men of the past (25:5).
However, the single most grave blasphemy was undoubtedly the blasphemy against God Himself.
7.180 “The most beautiful names belong to God: so call on him by them; but shun such men as use profanity (Arabic: Yul'hiduna) in His names: for what they do, they will soon be requited”
Arabic: Yul'hiduna - Blaspheme, deviate, violate, distort, pervert.
At no point did any of these insults attract the death penalty.
Rather, the advice was:
38.017 "Be patient over what they say and remember our servant David, the man of strength for he was repeatedly turning (to God)"
20.130 “Therefore be patient with what they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of thy Lord, before the rising of the sun and before its setting, yea, celebrate them for part of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day: that you may have (spiritual) joy”
Whether repeated insults and evil transgression which incite hatred, terrorism and evil in the land can be classed as 'fasaad' remains a matter for the state to decide. However, this is very different from the general 'blasphemy' understood by many Muslims today who believe it correct to murder anyone for uttering anything against the Prophet.
What blasphemy law?